PowerShell 5.1 marks the last major update to PowerShell we are likely to see built into Windows. The future of PowerShell has gone the open-source path with PowerShell 6 being available via GitHub and available not just for Windows but also multiple Linux distributions and MacOSX. This is made possible as PowerShell 6, or rather PowerShell CORE 6.0 is built on .NET Core (which is cross platform) instead of the Windows exclusive .NET.
The good news is PowerShell 6 can be installed alongside the PowerShell that is part of Windows/WMF. Download and install from https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases. Once installed you can launch by running pwsh.exe. If you look at $psversiontable you will see you have the Core PSEdition instead of the standard Desktop.
I recommend installing this and running alongside the regular PowerShell and getting used to it. The good news is most regular PowerShell will run and if you execute get-module -listavailable you will see the built-in modules. For non-built in modules you will need to check if they are supported with PowerShell Core.
Read the Microsoft article at https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/powershell/2018/01/10/powershell-core-6-0-generally-available-ga-and-supported/ for a great overview and walks through the key features that are not part of PowerShell Core 6, e.g. workflows in addition to key considerations.
Tools like Visual Studio Code can be used with PowerShell 5.1 and PowerShell Core 6.0. Simply change the settings for Visual Studio Code to add pwsh, e.g. add the following to user settings (File – Preferences – Settings) (change to your specific PowerShell version). I added this just under the existing User Setting (the , goes after the existing line in the file).